Rotavirus antigen test
The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. Rotavirus is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children.
How the Test is Performed
There are many ways to collect stool samples. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl and held in place by the toilet seat. Then you put the sample into a clean container. One type of test kit supplies a special toilet tissue to collect the sample, which is then placed in a container.
For infants and young children wearing diapers, try lining the diaper with plastic wrap. If the plastic wrap is positioned properly, it will help prevent urine and stool from mixing to provide a better sample.
The sample should be collected during the acute phase of the infection, which is the period in which diarrhea is occurring.
The sample is taken to the laboratory for evaluation.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is necessary for this test.
How the Test Will Feel
The test involves normal defecation.
Why the Test is Performed
This test is performed to diagnose a rotavirus infection.
See: Viral gastroenteritis for more information.
Normally, rotavirus is not found in the stool.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Rotavirus in the stool indicates a rotavirus infection is present.
There are no risks associated with this test.
Because rotavirus is easily transmitted from person to person, thoroughly wash your hands after contact with a child who is infected or thought to be infected. Disinfect any surface that has been in contact with stool.
Monitor infants and children for signs of dehydration.
Kapikian AZ. Rotaviruses, noroviruses, and other gastrointestinal viruses. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 403.
Bresee J. Rotaviruses. In: Long SS, ed. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 216.
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.